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Kingdoms of Bengal: A Brief History

 

KINGDOMS OF BENGAL 

– Deep Biswas 

This is a brief outline of the indigenous Kingdoms of  Bengal. Indigenous in the sense, the kings were sons of the soil and not invaders or followers of foreign religions like Islam or Christianity. This article will cover only the rule of the Hindu, Jain and Buddhist kings of Bengal.(There have been no Sikh kings in Bengal till date) It will take in to consideration legendary accounts of epics and other scriptures and the account of modern day historians. This list is very much incomplete to say the least.

Ancient Bengal consisted of modern West Bengal, Bangladesh/East Bengal, Tripura, some parts of Assam, Bihar and Orissa. The rivers Ganga(Ganges) and Brahmaputra mark the region and act as a connector to the subcontinent. Bengal has played a critical role in the history of the India. 

Civilization in Bengal dates back at least 4000 years. The oldest archaeological site (found till date) dates back to the Chalcolithic Period, it’s called the ‘Pandu Rajar Dhibi’ (পান্ডু রাজার ঢিবি). Located in Purba Bardhaman, near the south bank of river Ajay. This mound was founded before 750 BC according to archaeological experts. According to local beliefs, this mound is at least 5000 years or older and was founded by and/or named after King Pandu mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. 

In the ancient times, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, namely Pundra, Magadha, Suhma, Anga, Vanga, Samatata and Harikela.

Magadha, which is one of 16 Mahajanapadas, comprised of Bihar, Jharkhand and parts of Eastern Bengal. Magadha dates back to 4th or 5th century. 

Urban civilization in Bengal dates back to at least 3rd century BC. Mahasthangarh being the second oldest archaeological site discovered so far. This site is located in Bogra, Bangladesh and it has the remains of an ancient city belonging to the Kingdom of Pundravardhana, called Pundranagara or Paundravardhanapura. The historical age of Mahasthangarh is assumed from a limestone slab, which was discovered in 1931. It contained six lines of Prakrit in Brahmi script. 

The current region of Bengal (which includes aforementioned states and currently foreign regions) was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Gangaridai(গঙ্গা-হৃদয়). The Gangaridai or Gangaridae Kingdom dates back to the 4th or 5th century BC. This kingdom finds a mention in Diodorus Siculus’s “Bibliotheca Historica”. Diodorus was a 1st century BC writer and this book is probably the oldest surviving description of Gangaridai. However, Diodorus’ work is probably based on the writings of either Megasthenes or Hieronymus of Cardia.

According to Bibliotheca Historica,  “Gandaridae” (Gangaridai) was located to the east of the Ganges river and no foreign enemy had ever conquered it because of its incredible 4000 elephant force. He further states that, though Alexander the Great was able to subjugate rest of India, he retreated after learning about Gangaridae’s elephant army.  

According to archaeological discoveries, the Pundra kingdom probably emerged by the 6th or 7th century BC. However, the Pundra kingdom has been mentioned in the epic Mahabharata [which is considered a work of historical fiction, which is basically history, mixed with literary elements and devices to make it an interesting read. Indians consider it ‘Itihasa’], which makes it difficult to date it as recent as to 6th or 7th century. According to the epic, a Pundra king had once challenged Lord Krishna in a battle. The Pundra king used to imitate Krishna’s attributes and call himself Paundraka Vasudeva. He was eventually defeated and killed in battle by Krishna. 

In a major archaeological discovery in south Asia, over 2500 year old ruins have been unearthed near the old Brahmaputra River. This discovery has changed the earlier notions of ancient urban civilisations in Bengal/Vanga. 

The Wari-Bateshwar, located in Narsingdi, Bangladesh was part of yet another ancient urban civilization which dates back to 450 BC or further, existing during the reign of Maurya dynasty. 

The Wari-Bateshwar ruins have been identified as a part of the Gangaridae Kingdom.

Chronology of Kings

Kingdoms

Legendary kings of Magadha

Brihadratha Dynasty (c. 1700–799 BCE)

Brihadratha

Jarasandha

Sahadeva of Magadha

Somadhi (1679–1618 BCE)

Srutasravas (1618–1551 BCE)

Ayutayus (1551–1515 BCE)

Niramitra (1515–1415 BCE)

Sukshatra (1415–1407 BCE)

Brihatkarman (1407–1384 BCE)

Senajit (1384–1361 BCE)

Srutanjaya (1361–1321 BCE)

Vipra (1321–1296 BCE)

Suchi (1296–1238 BCE)

Kshemya (1238–1210 BCE)

Subrata (1210–1150 BCE)

Dharma (1150–1145 BCE)

Susuma (1145–1107 BCE)

Dridhasena (1107–1059 BCE)

Sumati (1059–1026 BCE)

Subhala (1026–1004 BCE)

Sunita (1004–964 BCE)

Satyajit (964–884 BCE)

Biswajit (884–849 BCE)

Ripunjaya (849–799 BCE)

Vithotra or Vitihotra Dynasty of Avanti (799–568 BCE)

Avanti was an ancient Indian Mahajanapada (Great Realm), one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Avanti corresponds to the current Malwa region, which includes parts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan, and it is sometimes extended to include the southern part of the Vindhyas. 

It is believed that the Vithotra Dynasty ruled Bengal for a little over 200 years. 

According to the post-vedic Hindu scriptures (e.g. Puranas), the Haihayas (or Heheyas/Heheya Kingdom) were one of the ancient rulers of Avanti, who had overthrown the Naga rulers to capture Avanti. 

Their capital was in Mahishmati and Ujjayini. 

The Haihayas were a confederation of five clans, namely – the Vitihotras, the Bhojas, the Avantis, the Tundikeras and the Sharyatas. Later, the Haihayas came to be known by the name of their most dominant clan – the Vithotras. According to some accounts, Ripunjaya, the last ruler of the Brihadratha Kingdom belonged to the Vitihotra clan. 

Ripunjaya was overthrown by his amatya (minister) Pulika, who made his son Pradyota King. This makes it hard to determine who ruled Bengal from 799-568. If Ripunjaya was the last ruler of the Vitihotra clan, then after he was overthrown did their clan leave Avanti and settle in Bengal? Or did the Pradyota Dynasty rule Bengal? In any case not much is known about the Vitihotra Dynasty post 799 BCE. So let’s take a look at the brief history of Avanti from Pradyota’s reign, assuming his dynasty or the dynasty of Avanti following him, may have ruled Bengal as well. However, it is hard to establish the extent of their Kingdom. Did it stretch from the Vindhyas to the Bay of Bengal? Much of the pre-Gupta period of Bengal is obscure to the say the least. 

Pradyota was contemporary to Gautama Buddha. He was also known as Chandapradyota Mahasena. 

Prodyota had two sons, Gopala and Palaka. Palaka succeeded to the throne after Pradyota.

According to Jain accounts, Palaka’s coronation ceremony took place the same day Mahavira left the world. Palaka has been described as a tyrant and was overthrown in a revolt, crowning Aryaka the new king of Ujjayini. After Aryaka comes Nadivardhana or Vartivardhana or Avantivardhana. He was the son of Palaka according to the Kathasaritsagara, or the son of Gopala according to the Nepali Brihatkatha. 

Avantivardhana was defeated by Shishunaga, the king of Magadha. But then again Shishunaga dynasty began in 413 BCE, which yet again confounds me, because the Haryanka Dynasty is said to have ruled Bengal from 568 to 413 BCE, so in that case Avantivardhana was a contemporary of Nagadasaka, the last Haryanka king, who ruled till 413 BCE. According to the Visarasreni of Merutunga, Palaka’s reign started in 527 BCE. 

Succession of rulers: Pradyota Kingdom

Pradyota Mahasena

Palaka (? 527-? BCE)

Visakhayupa

Ajaka or Aryaka

Varttivarddhana or Nandivardhana/Avantivardhana(?-413 BCE) 

Haryanka Dynasty (568–413 BCE)

Haryanka (568–544 BCE)

Bhattiya (555–549 BCE)

Bimbisara (549–491 BCE)

Ajatashatru (491–461 BCE)

Udayin (461-445)

Anuruddha (445-440)

Munda (440-437)

Nagadasaka (437-413)

Shishunaga Dynasty (413–345 BCE)

Shishunaga (413–395 BCE)

Kakavarna (395–367 BCE)

Mahanandin (367-345 BCE)

Nanda Dynasty (345–321 BCE)

Mahapadma Nanda (from 345 BCE)Pandhuka

Panghupati

Bhutapala

Rashtrapala

Govishanaka

Dashasidkhaka

Kaivarta

Dhana Nanda (until 321 BCE)

Maurya Dynasty (324–185 BCE)

Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrakottos) (324–301 BCE)Bindusara Amitraghata (301–273 BCE)Ashoka Vardhana (Ashoka the Great) (273–232 BCE),Dasharatha (232–224 BCE)Samprati (224–215 BCE)Shalishuka (215–202 BCE)Devavarman (202–195 BCE)Shatadhanvan (195–187 BCE)Brihadratha (187–184 BCE)

Shunga Dynasty (185–73 BCE)

Pushyamitra Shunga (185–149 BCE)Agnimitra (149–141 BCE)Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BCE)Vasumitra (131–124 BCE)Andhraka (124–122 BCE)Pulindaka (122–119 BCE)GhoshaVajramitraBhagabhadraDevabhuti (83–73 BCE)

Kanva Dynasty (73–43 BCE)

Vasudeva (c. 75 – c. 66 BCE)

Bhumimitra (c. 66 – c. 52 BCE)

Narayana (c. 52 – c. 40 BCE)

Susarman (c. 40 – c. 30 BCE)

43BCE-240CE

?

The history of the pre-Gupta period of Bengal is pretty much clouded as I’ve already stated before. Especially this particular period, the end of the Kanva Dynasty in about 43 BCE till the beginning of the Gupta Dynasty in 239-240 CE. 

The Mahameghavahana Dynasty (aka Chedi Dynasty) which ruled Kalinga (modern day Orissa) is said to have reigned from 250 BCE (approximate) till the 5th century CE. 

It may be inferred that the Mahameghavahana Dynasty ruled parts Bengal as well, while parts of it were ruled by other smaller unknown kingdoms. Considering that inference, here is an incomplete list of Mahameghavahana Kings.

Lalaka

Khemaraja (Kshemaraja) 

Unknown

Vudharaja Hastisaha a.k.a Vriddharaja a.k.a. Hastisimha (approx 250 BCE-?)

Cheta Raja or Chedi Raja (?) 

(Vriddharaja and Cheta Raja maybe the same person, whereas Cheta is real name, Chedi is a misreading and Vriddharaja a title given by people because of his age.)

Kharavela (a.k.a. Bhiku/Bhikshuraja) (1st or 2nd Century BCE)

Kudepasiri or Vakradeva/Vakadeva 

Vadukha (a.k.a. Badukha)

Before the conquest of Samudragupta Bengal was divided into two kingdoms: Pushkarana and Samatata. An inscription of Pushkaranadhipa (the ruler of Pushkarana) Chandravarman has been found in a cave in the Shushunia hills. The name of two kings have been found belonging to the Pushkarana Dynasty 

Simhavarmana or Simhavarman

Chandravarman (?-335CE?)

Samudragupta had defeated a confederacy of Vanga kings to capture Bengal. 

“(L. 21.)- (Samudragupta,) who abounded in majesty that had been increased by violently exterminating —**Rudradeva, Matila, Nāgadatta, Chandravarman, Ganapatināga, Nāgasena, Achyutanandin, Balavarman, **and many other kings of (the land of) Āryāvarta; -who made all the kings of the “forest countries” to become (his) servants.”

(Samudragupta’s inscription, Allahabad pillar.)

During Gupta rule, the Bengal economy was part of a global trade network. The main social groups dominating in the socio-economic life were the Nagarshreshthi (city representative of seth class, i.e. bankers), ‘Sarthabaha’ (merchant class), and ‘kulik’ (artisan class).

The Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was one of the most influential empires in the history of Bengal. It existed from 240 CE to 590 CE (approximately) and it stretched much across the Indian subcontinent(then Bharat, now India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives.). 

This period was most definitely the Golden Age of India, with great scholars and thinkers such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vatsyayana etc. who took  arts, science, philosophy and political administration to a new level and set standards for the world to follow. In Harle’s words, this period “set standards of form and taste [that] determined the whole subsequent course of art, not only in India but far beyond her borders”.

The Gupta Empire was founded by Sri Gupta and among the most notable rulers were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II. 

Chronology of the Gupta Empire

240-290 CE: Sri Gupta

290-305:Ghatotkacha

305-335: Chandra Gupta I

335-370: Samudra Gupta

370-375: Rama Gupta

375-415: Chandra Gupta II (Chandragupta Vikramaditya), son of Samudra Gupta, the Gupta Empire reached its peak during his reign. 

415-455: Kumara Gupta I

455-467: Skanda Gupta

467-477: Kumara Gupta II

477-496: Buddha Gupta

496-500:  Chandra Gupta III

500-515: Vainya Gupta

515-530: Narasimha Gupta

530-540:Kumara Gupta III

540-550: Vishnu Gupta

550-? Vainya Gupta

? Bhanu Gupta

?-590Mahasen Gupta

Gauda Kingdom

King Shashanka is one of the most important figures of Bengali history. He was the founder of the Gauda Kingdom. Historians approximate his rule from 590 CE to 625 CE. Among other kings who were his contemporary, Harsha and Bhaskarvarmana of Kamarupa are the most renowned. The capital of Gauda was Karnasubarna, which currently falls in Murshidabad. The Bengali calendar is attributed to Shashanka as the starting year of the Bengali calendar (Bongabdo/বঙ্গাব্দ) is 593/594 CE. 

Shashanka’s kingdom stretched from Vanga to Bhuvanesha and bordered with Kamarupa. Under the last Gupta ruler Mahasen Gupta, Bengal was divided in to Vanga, Samatata and Gauda. Shashanka was one of Mahasen Gupta’s chieftauns and after his death, Shashanka drove out the Guptas and the prominent nobles off the region and took over as King, uniting Bengal under Gauda Kingdom. After Shashanka, his son Manava ruled for 8 months approximately. After the fall of Shashanka, Bengal split up in to several small kingdoms again, losing its unity. 

Khadga kingdom

The Khadga dynasty was a line of Buddhist kings that ruled the areas of Vanga and later Samatata (modern Bangladesh) of ancient Bengal in 7th-8th century CE. Information about the dynasty comes from two copper plates discovered at Ashrafpur (near Dhaka), coins, and the Chinese accounts of Sheng-che (c 7th cent AD) etc. Of these, the Ashrafpur plates are the most important. The first known ruler of the dynasty is Khadgodyama (c 625-640 AD); but nothing is known about his predecessors. Khadgodyama was succeeded by his son Jatakhadga (c 640-658 AD). The line of succession continued through his son Devakhadga (c 658-673 AD) and his grandson Rajabhata (c 673-690 AD). Rajabhata was probably succeeded by his brother Balabhata (c 690-705 AD). The second Ashrafpur grant refers to an Udirnakhadga. The last part of his name may indicate that he too probably belonged to the Khadga dynasty, but the period of his reign is yet to be determined.

Khadga Dynasty

625 Khadgodyama (to 640)

640 Jatakhadga (to 658)

658 Devakhadga (to 673)

673 Rajabhata (to 690)

690 Balabhata (to 705)

705 Udirnakhadga (undetermined reign)

Mallabhum

Mallabhum was the kingdom ruled by the Mallas kings of Bishnupur primarily in the present Bankura district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Adi Malla (694 – 710)Jay Malla (710 – 720)Benu Malla (720 – 733)Kinu Malla (733 – 742)Indra Malla (742 – 757)Kanu (Kau/Kalu) Malla (757 – 764)Dha (Jhau) Malla (764 – 775)Shur Malla (775 – 795)Kanak Malla (795 – 807)Kandarpa Malla (807 – 828)Sanatan Malla (828 – 841)Kharga Malla (841 – 862)Durjan (Durjay) Malla (862 – 906)Yadav Malla (906 – 919)Jagannath Malla (919 – 931)Birat Malla (931 – 946)Mahadev Malla (946 – 977)Durgadas Malla (977 – 994)Jagat Malla (994 – 1007)Ananta Malla (1007 – 1015)Rup Malla (1015 – 1029)Sundar Malla (1029 – 1053)Kumud Malla (1053 – 1074)Krishna Malla (1074 – 1084)Rup II (Jhap) Malla (1084 – 1097)Prakash Malla (1097 – 1102)Pratap Malla (1102 – 1113)Sindur Malla (1113 – 1129)Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla (1129 – 1142)Banamali Malla (1142 – 1156)Yadu/Jadu Malla (1156 – 1167)Jiban Malla (1167 – 1185)Ram(Kshetra) Malla (1185 – 1209)Gobinda Malla (1209 – 1240)Bhim Malla (1240 – 1263)Katar(Khattar) Malla (1263 – 1295)Prithwi Malla (1295 – 1319)Tapa Malla (1319 – 1334)Dinabandhu Malla (1334 – 1345)Kinu/Kanu Malla II (1345 – 1358)Shur Malla II (1358 – 1370)Shiv Singh Malla (1370 – 1407)Madan Malla (1407 – 1420)Durjan Malla (1420 – 1437)Uday Malla (1437 – 1460)Chandra Malla (1460 – 1501)Bir Malla (1501 – 1554)Dhari Malla (1554 – 1565)Hambir Malla Dev (1565 – 1620)Dhari Hambir Malla Dev (1620 – 1626)Raghunath Singha Dev (1626 – 1656)Bir Singha Dev (1656 – 1682)Durjan Singha Dev(1682 – 1702)Raghunath Singha Dev II (1702 – 1712)Gopal Singha Dev (1712 – 1748)Chaitanya Singha Dev (1748 – 1801)Madhav Singha Dev (1801 – 1809)Gopal Singha Dev II (1809 – 1876)Ramkrishna Singha Dev (1876 – 1885)Dwhajamoni Devi (1885 – 1889)Nilmoni Singha Dev (1889 – 1903)No King (1903 – 1930)Kalipada Singha Thakur (1930 – 1983)

Pala (Pal) Empire 

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regional year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine. Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:

Gopala I 

750–770/

756–781

755–783

750–775

750–774

Dharmapala

770–810

781–821

783–820

775–812

774–806

Devapala

810–c. 850

821–861

820–860

812–850

806–845

Mahendrapala

845–860

Shurapala I

850–853

861–866

860–865

850–858

860–872

Vigrahapala I

858–860

872–873

Narayanapala

854–908

866–920

865–920

860–917

873–927

Rajyapala

908–940

920–952

920–952

917–952

927–959

Gopala II

940–957

952–969

952–967

952–972

959–976

Vigrahapala II960–c. 986

969–995

967–980

972–977

976–977

Mahipala I988–c. 1036995–1043980–1035977–1027977–1027

Nayapala1038–10531043–10581035–10501027–10431027–1043

Vigrahapala III1054–10721058–10751050–10761043–10701043–1070

Mahipala II1072–10751075–10801076–1078/91070–10711070–1071

Shurapala1075–10771080–10821071–10721071–1072

Ramapala1077–11301082–11241078/9–11321072–11261072–1126

Kumarapala1130–11251124–11291132–11361126–11281126–1128

Gopala III1140–11441129–11431136–11441128–11431128–1143

Madanapala1144–11621143–11621144–1161/621143–11611143–1161

Govindapala1155–1159NA1162–1176 or 1158–11621161–11651161–1165

Palapala (Pala Pal) 1165–1199/1200

Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.

AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.

According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the “14th year of Govindapala’s reign” or “14th year after Govindapala’s reign”. Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Chandra dynasty were a family who ruled over the kingdom of Harikela in eastern Bengal (comprising the ancient lands of Harikela, Vanga and Samatala) for roughly 150 years from the beginning of the 10th century CE. Their empire also encompassed Vanga and Samatala, with Srichandra expanding his domain to include parts of Kamarupa. Their empire was ruled from their capital, Vikrampur (modern Munshiganj) and was powerful enough to militarily withstand the Pala Empire to the north-west.

They were replaced later by the Varman dynasty as rulers of Harikela.

The five Chandra rulers were:

Traillokyachandra (900–930 CE)Srichandra (930–975 CE)Kalyanachandra (975–1000 CE)Ladahachandra (1000–1020 CE)Govindachandra (1020–1050 CE)

Chola dynasty

Rajendra Chola I (1019-1024)

Sena/Sen Dynasty(1095-1230)

(Sena Empire সেন সাম্রাজ্য

Shen Shamrajjo) 

1095 CE Hemanta Sen declares himself king of Bengal founding the Sena dynasty.

Capital: Nabadwip

Languages: Sanskrit

Religion: Hinduism, Buddhism

The Sena Dynasty

Samanta Sena(?)

Hemanta Sena (1070–1096 AD)

Vijaya Sena (1095–1158 AD)

Ballala Sena (1158–1179 AD)

Lakshmana Sena (1179–1205 AD)

Vishvarupa Sena (1206–1225 AD)

Keshava Sena (1225–1230 AD)

Deva Dynasty

Purushottamadeva

Madhusudanadeva

Vasudeva

Damodaradeva (1231–1243)

Dasharathadeva (1281)

Raja Ganesha (Bengali: রাজা গণেশ) (reigned 1415) was a Hindu ruler of Bengal, who took advantage of the weakness of the first Ilyas Shahi dynasty and seized power in Bengal.[1]Contemporary historians of the medieval period considered him as an usurper. The dynasty founded by him ruled over Bengal from 1415−1435. His name mentioned in the coins of his son, sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as Kans Rao or Kans Shah. The Indo-Persian historians mentioned his name as Raja Kans or Kansi. A number of modern scholars identified him with Danujamardanadeva, but this identification is not universally accepted.

House of Raja Ganesha (1414–1435)

Raja Ganesha1414–1415

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah1415–1416

(Son of Raja Ganesha, converted into Islam.)

Raja Ganesha 1416–1418, Second Phase

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah1418–1433, Second Phase

Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah1433–1435, (Grandson of Raja Ganesha.)

Raja Man Singh I was appointed Subahdar of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.

Man (Maan) Singh (Man Singh I) (21 December 1550 – 6 July 1614) was the Rajput Raja of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur in Rajputana.

He was a trusted general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who included him among the Navaratnas.

Hindu Dynasties in Bengal

Raja Sitaram Ray

Maharajas of Bankura

Adi Malla (694 – 710)Jay Malla (710 – 720)Kalu MallaKau MallaJhau MallaSur MallaJagat Malla (994 – 1007)Prithwi Malla (1295 – 1319)Dinabandhu Malla (1334 – 1345)Shiv Singh Malla (1370 – 1407)Madan Malla (1407 – 1420)Durjan Malla (1420 – 1437)Uday Malla (1437 – 1460)Chandra Malla (1460 – 1501)Bir Malla (1501 – 1554)Dhari Malla (1554 – 1565)Hambir Malla Dev (1565 – 1620)Dhari Hambir Malla Dev (1620 – 1626)Raghunath Singha Dev (1626 – 1656)Bir Singha Dev (1656 – 1682)Bir Singha Dev IIDurjan Singha Dev (1694)Raghunath Singha Dev II (1702 – 1712)Gopal Singha Dev (1712 – 1748)Chaitannya Singha Dev (1748 – 1801)Madhav Singh Dev (1801 – 1809)Gopal Singha Dev-II(1809-1876)Ramkrishna Singha Dev(1876-1889)Nilmoni Singha Dev(1889-1930)Kalipada Singha Thakur(1930-1984)

Maharajas of Bhurshut

Kingdom of Bhurshut

(15th Century CE – 18th Century CE)

Maharaja of Bhurishrestha

Shivanarayan

Rudranarayan

Bhavashankari

Pratapnarayan

Naranarayan

Lakshminarayan

Maharajas of Chandradwip

Many illustrious maharajas ruled much of East Bengal and the Sundarbans and conquered Jessore Their surname was Basu – they came to Bengal during the Sena Dynasty to conquer the Palas and take over from them. A famous literary novel was written about the Chandradwip Basu family by Tagore called Bou Thakuranis Haat and a film was made from this book.

Bhawal Estate

Rulers of Gazipur and Madhupur forest area, in central Bangladesh.

Maharajas of Koch kingdom

Viswa SinghaNara NarayanLakshmi NarayanHarendra NarayanShivendra NarayanNarendra NarayanNripendra NarayanJitendra NarayanJagaddipendra Narayan

Maharajas of Jessore Kingdom

Pratapaditya

Maharajas of Midnapore

Maharajas of Nadia

Raja Bhabananda

Raja Sri Krishna Ray

Raja Gopal Ray

Raja Raghab Ray

Maharaja Rudra Ray

Raja Ramjiban Ray

Raja Ramjiban Ray II

Raja Raghuram Ray

Raja Krishnachandra Ray 1727-1772

Maharajas of Tripura

Dhanya Manikya1463-1515

Dharma Manikya II1714-1733

Vijay Manikya II1743-1760

Krishna Manikya1760-1761

Rajdhar Manikya1783-1804

Ramgana Manikya1804-1809

Durga Manikya1809-1813

Kashi Chandra1826-1830

Krishna Kishore1830-1849

Ishan Chandra1849-1862

Bir Chandra1862-1896

Radha Kishore1896-1909

Birendra Kishore1909-1923

Bir Bikram Kishore1923–1947

Kirit Bikram Kishore1947-1949

Kirit Pradyot Deb Barman1978-till now

[Tripura monarchy dataManikya dynasty (Royal family)Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)Neermahal (Royal residence)Rajmala (Royal chronicle)Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)]

1684 – 1712 Ratna Manikya II (2nd time) (d. 1712)

1712 – 1714 Mahendra Manikya

1714 – 1732 Dharma Manikya II (1st time)

1732 – 1733 Jagat Manikya

1733 Dharma Manikya II (2nd time)

1733 – 1737 Mukanda Manikya III (d. 1739)

1737 – 1739 Jai Manikya II (1st time)

1739 – 174. Indrasya Manikya II (1st time)

17.. – 174. Udai Manikya

174. – 174. Jai Manikya II (2nd time)

174. – 174. Indrasya Manikya II (2nd time)

174. – 1743 Jai Manikya II (3rd time)

1743 – 1760 Bijaya Manikya III.

1748 – c.1758 Shamsher Ghazi -Regent (d. c.1758)

1760 Lakshman Manikya (d. 1760)

1760 – 1761 Krishna Manikya (1st time) (d. 1783)

1761 – 1767 Balaram Manikya

1767 – 11 July 1783 Krishna Manikya (2nd time) (s.a.)

11 Jul 1783 – Mar 1804 Rajadhara Manikya II (d. 1804)

11 Jul 1783 – 1786 Jahnavi Rani Mahadevayu (f) -RegentMar 

1804 – 18 October 1809 Ramaganga Manikya (1st time) (d. 1826)

18 Oct 1809 – 6 April 1813 Durga Manikya (b. 17.. – d. 1813)

6 April 1813 – 14 November 1826 Ramaganga Manikya (2nd time) (s.a.)

14 Nov 1826 – 19 March 1830 Kashichandra Manikya (d. 1830)

19 Mar 1830 – 3 April 1849 Krishna Kishor Manikya (d. 1849)

3 April 1849 – 31 July 1862 Ishanachandra Manikya (b. 1829 – d. 1862)

31 Jul 1862 – 11 December 1896 Virachandra Manikya (b. 1838 – d. 1896) 

(personal style Maharaja from 24 October 1877)

31 Jul 1862 – 9 March 1870 …. -Regent

11 Dec 1896 – 12 March 1909 Radha Kishor Manikya (b. 1857 – d. 1909)

12 Mar 1909 – 1 January 1919 Virendra Kishor Manikya (b. 1883 – d. 1923)

Maharajas

1 January 1919 – 13 August 1923 Virendra Kishor Manikya (2nd term as ruler)

17 August 1923 – 17 May 1947 Vira Vikrama Kishor Manikya (born 1908, died 1947) (after 3 June 1935 called Sir Vira Vikrama Kishor Manikya)

17 May 1947 – 15 October 1949 Kirit Vikrama Kishor Manikya, a minor (born 1933 – died 2006)

17 May 1947 – 15 October 1949 Maharani Kanchan Prabhavati Mahadevi, Regent (born 1914, died 1973)

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